Analysis of modern approaches to cardiorehabilitation of patients with the acute coronary syndrome
Keywords:acute coronary syndrome; cardiorehabilitation; physical exercises.
Aim. To study modern approaches to cardiorehabilitation of patients with the acute coronary syndrome based on foreign and national scientific publications and recommendations.
Materials and methods. The analysis of foreign and national scientific literature sources was performed, during which the system-analytical, comparative, logical methods and the method of generalization of information were used.
Results. When analyzing foreign and national scientific literature it has been found that cardiorehabilitation is an important component of the treatment process of patients with the acute coronary syndrome. The basis of the cardiorehabilitation program is regular physical activity and training. The exercise program is developed on an individual basis and includes a combination of strength training and aerobic endurance training. Most recommendations prefer aerobic exercise, which includes walking, jogging, cycling, and so on. The exercises proposed by different researchers differed in frequency, intensity, type, and time. When evaluating the effectiveness of cardiorehabilitation programs, researchers note a positive effect of exercise on the condition of patients, and the study of long-term results indicates a significant reduction in the risk of hospitalization for cardiovascular events and cardiovascular mortality. Many researchers have noted low adherence of patients to long-term cardiorehabilitation affecting the prognosis of the disease and quality of life.
Conclusions. According to current recommendations, multidisciplinary exercise-based cardiorehabilitation is indicated for patients with the acute coronary syndrome. In many countries around the world, the basis of the exercise program is aerobic exercise. Differences in exercise performance relate to frequency, intensity, time and type. The studies on the effectiveness of cardiorehabilitation programs have shown a significant reduction in the risk of hospitalization from cardiovascular events, cardiovascular mortality. Low adherence of patients to long-term physical rehabilitation affects the effectiveness of treatment, prognosis and quality of life of patients.
Bueno H. Epidemiology of acute coronary syndromes. ESC CardioMed. 2018. Р. 1213–1218. DOI: 10.1093/med/9780198784906.003.0305.
20 ESC Guidelines on sports cardiology and exercise in patients with cardiovascular disease: The Task Force on sports cardiology and exercise in patients with cardiovascular disease of the European Society of Cardiology (ESC) / A. Pelliccia et al. European Heart Journal. 2021. Vol. 42 (1). P. 17–96. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1093/eurheartj/ehaa605.
Secondary prevention through comprehensive cardiovascular rehabilitation: From knowledge to implementation. 2020 update. A position paper from the Secondary Prevention and Rehabilitation Section of the European Association of Preventive Cardiology / M. Ambrosetti et al. Eur. J. Prev. Cardiol. 2021. Vol. 28 (5). P. 460–495. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1177/2047487320913379.
Health-related quality of life and exercise-based cardiac rehabilitation in contemporary acute coronary syndrome patients: A systematic review and meta-analysis / D. Candelaria et al. Qual. Life Res. 2020. Vol. 29 (3). Р. 579–592. DOI: 10.1007/s11136-019-02338-y.
Cost-effectiveness of cardiac rehabilitation: a systematic review / G. E. Shields et al. Heart. 2018. Vol. 104 (17). Р. 1403–1410. DOI: 10.1136/heartjnl-2017-312809.
Exercise-based cardiac rehabilitation for adults with heart failure / L. Long et al. Cochrane Database Syst. Rev. 2019. Vol. 1 (1). Р. Cd003331. DOI: 10.1002/14651858.CD003331.pub5.
Effects of Exercise-Based Cardiac Rehabilitation in Patients with Acute Coronary Syndrome: A Meta-Analysis / Ji Haigang et al. Med. Sci. Monit. 2019. Vol. 25. Р. 5015–5027. DOI: 10.12659/MSM.917362.
The effect of exercise training on autonomic cardiovascular regulation: from cardiac patients to athletes / F. Iellamo et al. Current Sports Medicine Reports. 2018. Vol. 17 (12). Р. 473–479. DOI: 10.1249/JSR.0000000000000544.
Effectiveness of comprehensive cardiac rehabilitation in coronary artery disease patients treated according to contemporary evidence based medicine: Update of the Cardiac Rehabilitation Outcome Study (CROS-II) / A. Salzwedel et al. Eur. J. Prev. Cardiol. 2020. Vol. 27 (16). Р. 1756–1774. DOI: 10.1177/2047487320905719.
Are the Current Cardiac Rehabilitation Programs Optimized to Improve Cardiorespiratory Fitness in Patients? A Meta-Analysis / A. Manresa-Rocamora et al. J. Aging Phys. Act. 2020. Vol. 29 (2). Р. 327–342. DOI: 10.1123/japa.2019-0363.
Гострий коронарний синдром з елевацією сегмента ST. Уніфікований клінічний протокол екстреної, первинної, вторинної (спеціалізованої) та третинної (високоспеціалізованої) медичної допомоги та кардіореабілітації : Наказ МОЗ України від 14.09.2021 р. № 1936. URL: https://www.dec.gov.ua/wp-content/uploads/2021/09/2021_1936_ykpmd_gkszelev.pdf.
Швед М. І., Цуглевич Л. В., Левицька Л. В. Сучасні принципи кардіореабілітації пацієнтів після гострого коронарного синдрому (огляд літератури та власні дослідження). Вісник Наукових Досліджень. 2018. № 4. С. 6–12. DOI: https://doi.org/10.11603/2415-8798.2018.4.9466.
Comparing cardiac rehabilitation guidelines / F. Alenzy et al. European Journal of Physical Education and Sport Science. 2019. Vol. 5 (3). Р. 48–64. DOI: https://doi.org/10.5281/zenodo.2537148.
A review of guidelines for cardiac rehabilitation exercise programmes: Is there an international consensus? / K. J. Price et al. Eur. J. Prev. Cardiol. 2016. Vol. 23, № 16. Р. 1715-1733. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1177/2047487316657669.
Григус І. М., Брега Л. Б. Фізична терапія в кардіології : навч. посіб. Рівне : НУВГП, 2018. 268 с.
Cardiac rehabilitation in acute myocardial infarction patients after percutaneous coronary intervention / Zhang Yong et al. Medicine. 2018. Vol. 97 (8). Р. e9785. DOI: 10.1097/MD.0000000000009785.
Impact of ambulatory cardiac rehabilitation on cardiovascular outcomes: a long-term follow-up study / S. Doimo et al. European Heart Journal. 2019. Vol. 40 (8). P. 678–685. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1093/eurheartj/ehy417.
Cardiac rehabilitation in patients with acute coronary syndrome with primary percutaneous coronary intervention is associated with improved 10-year survival / M. Sunamura et al. Eur. Heart J. – Quality of Care and Clinical Outcomes. 2018. Vol. 4 (3). Р. 168–172. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1093/ehjqcco/qcy001.
Different outcomes of a cardiac rehabilitation programme in functional parameters among myocardial infarction survivors according to ejection fraction / E. M. Vilela et al. Neth. Heart J. 2019. Vol. 27 (7-8). Р. 347–353. DOI: 10.1007/s12471-019-1269-7.
Assessing the quality of cardiac rehabilitation programs by measuring adherence to the Australian quality indicators / C. M. Astley et al. BMC Health Serv. Res. 2022. Vol. 22 (1). Р. 1-12. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1186/s12913-022-07667-2.
Factors associated with non-participation in and dropout from cardiac rehabilitation programmes: A systematic review of prospective cohort studies / D. M. Resurrección et al. Eur. J. Cardiovasc. Nurs. 2019. Vol. 18 (1). Р. 38–47. DOI: 10.1177/1474515118783157.
Impact of and Reasons for Not Performing Exercise Training After an Acute Coronary Syndrome in the Setting of an Interdisciplinary Cardiac Rehabilitation Program: Results from a Risk-Op-Acute Coronary Syndrome Ambispective Registr / I. Cabrera-Aguilera et al. Front. Physiol. 2021. Vol. 12. Р. 768199. DOI: https://doi.org/10.3389/fphys.2021.768199.
Copyright (c) 2022 National University of Pharmacy
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.Authors who publish with this journal agree to the following terms:
- Authors retain copyright and grant the journal right of first publication with the work simultaneously licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution License that allows others to share the work with an acknowledgement of the work's authorship and initial publication in this journal.
- Authors are able to enter into separate, additional contractual arrangements for the non-exclusive distribution of the journal's published version of the work (e.g., post it to an institutional repository or publish it in a book), with an acknowledgement of its initial publication in this journal.
- Authors are permitted and encouraged to post their work online (e.g., in institutional repositories or on their website) prior to and during the submission process, as it can lead to productive exchanges, as well as earlier and greater citation of published work (See The Effect of Open Access).