The importance of legislation in developing orphan drugs

Ye. Zgîrcu

Abstract


The aim of this study is to conduct the analysis of legislation in the field of orphan drugs in world practice. The review of literature has shown that significant achievements in research and development of orphan drugs have really begun only after adopting different laws and regulations followed by development of therapies for rare diseases. About 7000 rare diseases affect over 350 million people worldwide and have a negative impact on patients and their families. The research and development in the field of orphan drugs are difficult processes because of the lack of understanding the mechanism of the disease and due to the high cost of these processes. Therefore, to encourage the research in this field many countries have developed and implemented legislations that offer stimuli, support and assistance to drug manufacturers, starting with the formulation of these drugs up to receiving the marketing authorization. The Orphan Drug Act was firstly adopted in the United States in 1983. As a result, in the first ten years, 620 drugs became orphan, and 87 received the marketing authorization. Following the great impact of this act, Japan, Australia and the European Union later adopted such policies. Currently, 89 orphan drugs covering 12 ATC groups have been authorized in Europe.

Keywords


rare diseases; orphan drugs; orphan drugs legislation; orphan drugs development

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References


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GOST Style Citations


1. A decade of innovation in rare diseases 2005-2015. Available from: http://www.phrma.org/sites/default/files/pdf/PhRMA-Decade-of-Innovation-Rare-Diseases.pdf 

2. Brabers A, Moors E, Weely S, Vrueh R. Does market exclusivity hinder the development of Follow-on Orphan Medicinal Products inEurope? Orphanet Journal of Rare Diseases. 2011;6:59 

3. Commission communication on the framework for action in the field of public health. Commission of the European Communities. COM (93) 559 final.Brussels, 24 November 1993. Available from: http://aei.pitt.edu/9690/1/9690.pdf

4. Commission Regulation (EC) No 847/2000 of 27 April 2000 laying down the provisions for implementation of the criteria for designation of a medicinal product as an orphan medicinal product and definitions of the concepts ‘similar medicinal product’ and ‘clinical superiority’. Official Journal of the European Communities. Available from: http://ec.europa.eu/health/files/eudralex/vol-1/reg_2000_847/reg_2000_847_en.pdf  

5. Dear J, Lilitkarntakul P, Webb D. Are rare diseases still orphans or happily adopted? The challenges of developing and using orphan medicinal products. British Journal of Clinical Pharmacology. 2006;62(3):264-71 

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7. Fellows G, Hollis A. Funding innovation for treatment for rare diseases: adopting a cost-based yardstick approach. Orphanet Journal of Rare Diseases. 2013;8:180

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DOI: https://doi.org/10.24959/sphhcj.16.48

Abbreviated key title: Soc. farm. ohor. zdor.

ISSN 2518-1564 (Online), ISSN 2413-6085 (Print)