International practices of pricing-management as the basis of availability of medicines




essential medicines, price, pricing, availability of medicines


Aim. To substantiate directions for improving pricing-management in order to increase availability of drugs for the population ofUkraine.

Materials and methods. The analysis of approaches to the solution of the problem of availability of medicines in different countries and at the international level was carried out. The external and internal monitoring of prices was performed for the following drugs to be reimbursed inUkraine: Atenolol (C07AB03), Simvastatin (C10AA01) and Salbutamol (R03AC02). For the analysis the price indicators of databases of international health organizations (HAI, MSH, etc.) were used. The dynamics of international reference prices for these drugs for 1996-2016 was analyzed.

Results. The mechanisms of pricing at the macro and microeconomic level have been studied; the pricing management model and directions for its improvement have been developed. The key element of the pricing system is the information analysis block that includes Health Technologies Assessment (HTA) and provides feedback through monitoring and testing, and evaluation of pricing effectiveness in terms of availability of drugs. Based on the results of the external and internal monitoring it has been found that prices for medicines inUkraine are relatively low, and they differ insignificantly in the public and private sectors. At the same time, availability of medicines for the population is not provided because of the lack of health insurance and reimbursement and the low income of the Ukrainians.

Conclusions. In order to provide availability of medicines it is necessary to systematically solve questions of pricing and reimbursement, regulate dispensing of prescription drugs and affect the drug consumption taking into account HTA. The socio-economic effectiveness of pricing can be provided by registering drug prices, as well as monitoring of prices and availability of medicines.


Bazargani, Y. T., Ewen, M., de Boer, A., Leufkens, H. G. M., & Mantel-Teeuwisse, A. K. (2014). Essential Medicines Are More Available than Other Medicines around the Globe. PLoS ONE, 9 (2), e87576. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0087576.

Schoonveld, E. (2016). The Price of Global Health. Drug Pricing Strategies to Balance Patient Access and the Funding of Innovation. (2-d ed.).New York: Routledge, 496.

Landa, K. (Ed.). (2012). Cenoobrazovanie na lekarstvennye preparaty [Pricing of medicines]. Moscow: N’iudiamed, 360.

World Health Organization and Health Action International. (2008). Measuring medicine prices, availability, affordability and price components. (2-d ed.).Geneva. Retrieved from:

Sharma, A., Rorden, L., Ewen, M., Laing, R. (2016). Evaluating availability and price of essential medicines in Bostonarea (Massachusetts, USA) using WHO/HAI methodology. Journal of Pharmaceutical Policy and Practice, 9 (12). Avialable at:

Investigación periodística sobre el acceso a losmedicamentos enelmundo. Journalistic investigation on the gap in global access to health. Retrieved from:

Postanova KMU vid 9.11.2016 No. 863 (iz zminamy i dopovnennyamy, vnesenymy PKMU vid 17.03.2017 No. 152) “Pro zaprovadzhennia vidshkoduvannia vartosti likars’kykh zasobiv”. Retrieved from:

Postanova KMU vid 09.11.2016 No. 862 “Pro derzhavne rehuliuvannia tsin na likars’ki zasoby”. Retrieved from:

Nakaz MOZ Ukrainy vid 03.04.2017 No.360 (u redaktsii nakazu MOZ Ukrainy vid 14.04.2017 No.436) “Reyestr likars’kykh zasobiv, vartist’ yakykh pidliahaie vidshkoduvanniu stanom na 03.04.2017”. Retrieved from:

International Drug Price Indicator Guide.Medford: Management Sciences for Health. (2015). Retrieved from:

Council Directive 89/105/EEC of 21 December 1988 relating to the transparency of measures regulating the prices of medicinal products for human use and their inclusion in the scope of national health insurance systems. Retrieved from:





Health organization